4 speed manual transmissions

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4 speed manual transmissions

It uses a driver-operated clutch, usually engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission; and a gear selector that can be operated by hands.Higher-end vehicles, such as sports cars and luxury cars are often usually equipped with a 6-speed transmission for the base model. Automatic transmissions are commonly used instead of manual transmissions; common types of automatic transmissions are the hydraulic automatic transmission, automated manual transmission, dual-clutch transmission and the continuously variable transmission (CVT). The number of forward gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well (e.g., 9-speed automatic).Most manual transmissions for cars allow the driver to select any gear ratio at any time, for example shifting from 2nd to 4th gear, or 5th to 3rd gear. However, sequential manual transmissions, which are commonly used in motorcycles and racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear.A clutch sits between the flywheel and the transmission input shaft, controlling whether the transmission is connected to the engine ( clutch engaged - the clutch pedal is not being pressed) or not connected to the engine ( clutch disengaged - the clutch pedal is being pressed down). When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged (i.e., clutch pedal up), the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission.This is a fundamental difference compared with a typical hydraulic automatic transmission, which uses an epicyclic (planetary) design. Some automatic transmissions are based on the mechanical build and internal design of a manual transmission, but have added components (such as servo-controlled actuators and sensors) which automatically control the gear shifts and clutch; this design is typically called an automated manual transmission (or a clutchless manual transmission ).

Operating such transmissions often uses the same pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gears.The driver was therefore required to use careful timing and throttle manipulation when shifting, so the gears would be spinning at roughly the same speed when engaged; otherwise, the teeth would refuse to mesh.Five-speed transmissions became widespread during the 1980s, as did the use of synchromesh on all forward gears.This allows for a narrower transmission since the length of each countershaft is halved compared with one that contains four gears and two shifters.For example, a five-speed transmission might have the first-to-second selectors on the countershaft, but the third-to-fourth selector and the fifth selector on the main shaft. This means that when the vehicle is stopped and idling in neutral with the clutch engaged and the input shaft spinning, the third-, fourth-, and fifth-gear pairs do not rotate.For reverse gear, an idler gear is used to reverse the direction in which the output shaft rotates. In many transmissions, the input and output shafts can be directly locked together (bypassing the countershaft) to create a 1:1 gear ratio which is referred to as direct drive.The assembly consisting of both the input and output shafts is referred to as the main shaft (although sometimes this term refers to just the input shaft or output shaft). Independent rotation of the input and output shafts is made possibly by one shaft being located inside the hollow bore of the other shaft, with a bearing located between the two shafts.The input shaft runs the whole length of the gearbox, and there is no separate input pinion.When the dog clutches for all gears are disengaged (i.e. when the transmission is in neutral), all of the gears are able to spin freely around the output shaft.

When the driver selects a gear, the dog clutch for that gear is engaged (via the gear selector rods), locking the transmission's output shaft to a particular gear set.It has teeth to fit into the splines on the shaft, forcing that shaft to rotate at the same speed as the gear hub. However, the clutch can move back and forth on the shaft, to either engage or disengage the splines. This movement is controlled by a selector fork that is linked to the gear lever. The fork does not rotate, so it is attached to a collar bearing on the selector. The selector is typically symmetric: it slides between two gears and has a synchromesh and teeth on each side in order to lock either gear to the shaft. Unlike some other types of clutches (such as the foot-operated clutch of a manual-transmission car), a dog clutch provides non-slip coupling and is not suited to intentional slipping.These devices automatically match the speed of the input shaft with that of the gear being selected, thus removing the need for the driver to use techniques such as double clutching.Therefore, to speed up or slow down the input shaft as required, cone-shaped brass synchronizer rings are attached to each gear. In a modern gearbox, the action of all of these components is so smooth and fast it is hardly noticed. Many transmissions do not include synchromesh on the reverse gear (see Reverse gear section below).This is achieved through 'blocker rings' (also called 'baulk rings'). The synchro ring rotates slightly because of the frictional torque from the cone clutch. In this position, the dog clutch is prevented from engaging. Once the speeds are synchronized, friction on the blocker ring is relieved and the blocker ring twists slightly, bringing into alignment certain grooves or notches that allow the dog clutch to fall into the engagement.The latter involves the stamping the piece out of a sheet metal strip and then machining to obtain the exact shape required.

These rings and sleeves have to overcome the momentum of the entire input shaft and clutch disk during each gearshift (and also the momentum and power of the engine, if the driver attempts a gearshift without fully disengaging the clutch). Larger differences in speed between the input shaft and the gear require higher friction forces from the synchromesh components, potentially increasing their wear rate.This means that moving the gearshift lever into reverse results in gears moving to mesh together. Another unique aspect of the reverse gear is that it consists of two gears— an idler gear on the countershaft and another gear on the output shaft— and both of these are directly fixed to the shaft (i.e. they are always rotating at the same speed as the shaft). These gears are usually spur gears with straight-cut teeth which— unlike the helical teeth used for forward gear— results in a whining sound as the vehicle moves in reverse.To avoid grinding as the gears begin to the mesh, they need to be stationary. Since the input shaft is often still spinning due to momentum (even after the car has stopped), a mechanism is needed to stop the input shaft, such as using the synchronizer rings for 5th gear.This can take the form of a collar underneath the gear knob which needs to be lifted or requiring extra force to push the gearshift lever into the plane of reverse gear.Without a clutch, the engine would stall any time the vehicle stopped and changing gears would be difficult (deselecting a gear while the transmission requires the driver to adjust the throttle so that the transmission is not under load, and selecting a gear requires the engine RPM to be at the exact speed that matches the road speed for the gear being selected).In most automobiles, the gear stick is often located on the floor between the driver and front passenger, however, some cars have a gear stick that is mounted to the steering column or center console.

Gear selection is usually via the left foot pedal with a layout of 1 - N - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6. This was actuated either manually while in high gear by throwing a switch or pressing a button on the gearshift knob or on the steering column, or automatically by momentarily lifting the foot from the accelerator with the vehicle traveling above a certain road speed.When the crankshaft spins as a result of the energy generated by the rolling of the vehicle, the motor is cranked over. This simulates what the starter is intended for and operates in a similar way to crank handles on very old cars from the early 20th century, with the cranking motion being replaced by the pushing of the car.This was often due to the manual transmission having more gear ratios, and the lock-up speed of the torque converters in automatic transmissions of the time.The operation of the gearstick— another function that is not required on automatic transmission cars— means that the drive must use take one hand off the steering wheel while changing gears. Another challenge is that smooth driving requires co-ordinated timing of the clutch, accelerator, and gearshift inputs. Lastly, a car with an automatic transmission obviously does not require the driver to make any decisions about which gear to use at any given time.This means that the driver's right foot is not needed to operate the brake pedal, freeing it up to be used on the throttle pedal instead. Once the required engine RPM is obtained, the driver can release the clutch, also releasing the parking brake as the clutch engages.Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. ( June 2020 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Multi-control transmissions are built in much higher power ratings but rarely use synchromesh.Usual types are:The first through fourth gears are accessed when low range is selected.

To access the fifth through eighth gears, the range selector is moved to high range, and the gear lever again shifted through the first through fourth gear positions. In high range, the first gear position becomes fifth, the second gear position becomes sixth, and so on. This allows even more gear ratios. Both a range selector and a splitter selector are provided. In older trucks using floor-mounted levers, a bigger problem is common gear shifts require the drivers to move their hands between shift levers in a single shift, and without synchromesh, shifts must be carefully timed or the transmission will not engage. Also, each can be split using the thumb-actuated under-overdrive lever on the left side of the knob while in high range. L cannot be split using the thumb lever in either the 13- or 18-speed. The 9-speed transmission is basically a 13-speed without the under-overdrive thumb lever.Transmissions may be in separate cases with a shaft in between; in separate cases bolted together; or all in one case, using the same lubricating oil. With a third transmission, gears are multiplied yet again, giving greater range or closer spacing. Some trucks thus have dozens of gear positions, although most are duplicates. Two-speed differentials are always splitters. In newer transmissions, there may be two countershafts, so each main shaft gear can be driven from one or the other countershaft; this allows construction with short and robust countershafts, while still allowing many gear combinations inside a single gear case.One argument is synchromesh adds weight that could be payload, is one more thing to fail, and drivers spend thousands of hours driving so can take the time to learn to drive efficiently with a non-synchromesh transmission. Since the clutch is not used, it is easy to mismatch speeds of gears, and the driver can quickly cause major (and expensive) damage to the gears and the transmission.

Since few heavy-duty transmissions have synchromesh, automatic transmissions are commonly used instead, despite their increased weight, cost, and loss of efficiency.Diesel truck engines from the 1970s and earlier tend to have a narrow power band, so they need many close-spaced gears. Starting with the 1968 Maxidyne, diesel truck engines have increasingly used turbochargers and electronic controls that widen the power band, allowing fewer and fewer gear ratios. A transmission with fewer ratios is lighter and may be more efficient because there are fewer transmissions in series. Fewer shifts also make the truck more drivable.Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( June 2020 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Gear oil has a characteristic aroma because it contains added sulfur-bearing anti-wear compounds. These compounds are used to reduce the high sliding friction by the helical gear cut of the teeth (this cut eliminates the characteristic whine of straight cut spur gears ).Retrieved 10 March 2020. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Through the 1950s, all makers were working on their own automatic transmission, with four more developed inside GM alone. All of GM's early automatic transmissions were replaced by variants of the Turbo-Hydramatic by the 1970s.Manually shifted on Column. ) The basic rear-wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic spawned two front-wheel drive variants, the transverse Turbo-Hydramatic 125, and the longitudinal Turbo-Hydramatic 425. A third variant was the light-duty rear wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic 180 used in many European models.Also manufactured and used by Holden as the Trimatic transmission. Ford led the design of the 10-speed transmission, as well as filing the design patents for said transmission.

According to an official report by the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) the design of the 10-speed gearbox is essentially all Ford, while GM was responsible for designing the 9-speed 9T transverse automatic gearbox. As part of their joint-venture, Ford will let GM use the 10-speed transmission with rights to modify and manufacture it for their own applications.Retrieved 2019-07-16. Retrieved 2019-07-16. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Please try again.Please try again.In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Register a free business account Please try your search again later.Amazon calculates a product’s star ratings based on a machine learned model instead of a raw data average. The model takes into account factors including the age of a rating, whether the ratings are from verified purchasers, and factors that establish reviewer trustworthiness. After all, GM car manufacturers used 13 different types of four-speeds over the years. Some had specific uses, so you can narrow it down to a shortlist based on the vehicle make and model. It’s helpful to begin with the basics to make it easier to understand. What Does the Transmission Do. There are three types of transmissions or gearboxes that you’ll see in order from first to latest technologies: Manual Automatic Continuously variable transmission (CVT) Its primary purpose is to create a balance between speed and torque, or the power needed to move a vehicle forward. The differences between the types speak to the ways that it occurs. The engine and the wheels operate at different speeds, with the former turning at faster rotations per minute (RPM) than the wheels. When you turn on your vehicle, it’ll need to draw on a lot of power to get it moving. A higher torque, therefore, is necessary.

On the other end of the spectrum, you don’t need as much power output when you’re driving on the expressway, hence, the need for balance. A manual transmission is an enclosed box consisting of different sized gears, rods, meshes, shafts, cogs, and other parts, all encased in oil to keep things running smoothly. The gear ratio describes the relationship between the different components. Each gear represents a varying combination of them that, in turn, produce a specific power-speed output. It’s not unlike what you’d see on a bicycle. The first stick-shift vehicles had three-speed transmissions and lasted up until the 1960s. As the technology caught up, the industry moved toward four-speed ones. There’s no denying how fun a car with a stick shift is to cruise on the highway whether it’s a Chevy Corvette or a Ford Mustang. It puts you closer to the road and the driving experience. That brings the discussion to the Chevy 4 speed manual transmission identification. Both the outside and the inside provide vital clues to determining what kind you have, beginning with the brand. Types of Manual Transmissions GM has since moved on to different technologies. The four-speed is a relic of the past with innovation pushing the bounds to nine- and even ten-speed gearboxes. Each of the 13 four-speed manual transmissions had a specific application. That of itself is the first step toward a positive ID. Right away, you’ve narrowed the field. The run-of-the-mill vehicle probably has either the Borg-Warner or Saginaw. Muncie, on the other hand, is a different animal. It’s one that you’re more likely to find in high-duty or performance rides. The automaker used some models only on certain types of vehicles. So, if you have a car, the chances are you won’t find one meant for a truck under the hood. They also used different ones for certain years, the term referring to the date of the model and not a calendar date.

Steps to Identifying a Four-Speed Manual Transmission The first step toward a positive ID is to figure out what is the brand of the part. Fortunately, that task is easier than it sounds. Each of the top makes has a distinct shape. The entire transmission has a main case, side cover, and extension housing. The general form is the main box with a telescoping tube attached at the other end. Shape and Parts Borg-Warner is the most clear-cut. It has box portion has a straight end. The other part has a gradual narrowing with an abrupt smaller finish. The Saginaw is not as wide. The end of the case appears rounded with at least two visible protrusions. Finally, the Muncie falls somewhere in between. It is boxy like the Borg-Warner but with a slight curve. It also has two bumps along the edge. The telltale difference between the Borg-Warner and the other two is the number of bolts on the side cover. It has nine, whereas the Saginaw and Muncie have seven. You can tell the two apart by looking for the reverse lever. On the former, it’s on the side cover. On the latter, you’ll find it on the extension housing. Other parts to examine include the selector arms, noting how it’s attached to the main unit. Model Specifics Each model within the make’s line typically has slight variations that can pinpoint a range or maybe even a specific year. The Borg-Warner T10, for example, has a long run in cars between 1957-1988 and a brief one between 1968-1970 in vans. The T4 and T4C also had short spans. The T4 was only between 1983-1984 in cars and 1985-1987 in trucks. The TC4 lasted for 1982-1984. Sometimes, you can home in on the details by knowing the make and model of the vehicle in which it was found. The Saginaw manual transmission existed in cars from 1966-1984. However, it only stuck around between 1985-1986 in the Astro and Safari. On a side note, neither vehicle made a go of it either, with both going out of production too. A similar tale exists with the Muncie.

It is the youngest of the three. The M21 and M22 led things off for cars in 1963 going until 1974. The SM420 followed by the SM465 in 1968 held up the reins for the truck side until it ended in 1991. Materials The materials also vary with the make. Look at the construction. If the cover and case are cast-iron, it’s a Saginaw. If it has an aluminum cover, you’re looking at a Borg-Warner. However, some earlier versions had a cast-iron cover instead before making the switch to more weather-resistant materials. An all-aluminum transmission is a Muncie. If the four-speed manual transmission is a barn-find, the latter is probably still in decent shape. The others, not so much. It might be a good time to start checking out new truck prices. Casting Number All of the main parts of the transmission have a casting number that identifies the part and provides clues about when it was made. It is a physical trait, being within the mold. However, any vehicle manufacturer may tweak their designs. If an original one is modified, the casting number changes too. It is not interchangeable with the part number. It’s not unusual to find different casting numbers covered by the same part number. It’s the nature of the industry to change materials or refine a design. One thing that you can count on is that the casting numbers will get higher with each consecutive year. In other words, it’s newer. You may also notice the words, “PAT. PEND.” or “US PATENT NO” on a part which means, patent-pending or the official number, respectively. You can do a search on the US Patent and Trademark Office to home in on its date. It can identify the make too since the details of your search will include this info. The models of the Borg-Warner are T10, T4, and T4C. The last one was for trucks only. The casting numbers for the first one are either 13-04 or T10-XX. The second are 13-51 or 13-52. Finally, the last one is 13-53.

Saginaw has one type of four-speed manual transmission, making the identification quicker after figuring out the make. The Muncie includes M20, M21, and M22. The distinction is the ratio with wide, close, and heavy-duty close, respectively. IDing the transmission requires a look inside of the case. You will need to count things like the splines or teeth of the gears. Noting its location in situ can also identify the variation. The M22 or so-called Rock Crusher usually partnered up with big-block engines. Serial Number The serial number is where the money shot lies. It offers a lot of information to complete the story of the four-speed manual transmission. This figure is usually stamped and not a part of the mold. It’s also easily faked if you have concerns about whether it’s genuine or not. They often include a code for the date for helping you authenticate it. However, it’s not always as easy to decipher as it sounds. Auto manufacturers often use unique codes even for something as mundane as a month name. Muncie is a perfect example. Muncie Serial Number The serial number begins with a P followed by the month and day. The letter denotes the plant in which the manual transmission was assembled. So, P0201 means February 1. They didn’t add the year until after 1966. But wait. It gets better. Instead of a simple number to designate the month, the manufacturer went to letters with A for January and so on. Unfortunately, that wasn’t the case. What you’ll see for the ones after May is as follows: H for June K for July M for August P for September R for October S for November T for December There is also another number to denote the particular ratio. A stands for M20, B for M21, and C for M22. To decode it, you’ll need these bits of information. For example, a Muncie with P4H15A translates to a Muncie M20 assembled on June 15, 1974. Presumably, abbreviating it with this serial number gives a compact stamp that saves time and space.

Identifying the Rest of the Transmission Bear in mind that some transmissions may contain a hodge-podge of parts. You may think you have one brand. But, when you look inside, your so-called matching-numbers parts isn’t what it seems. That’s what makes knowing a vehicle’s history essential if it’s from an existing car or truck. You’re more likely to find a Saginaw or Borg-Warner intact and not necessarily rebuilt since the automaker used them on everyday models. The Muncie is the one that you need to check. Since it’s a performance part, it’s in high demand among collectors. Earlier versions may have components of later ones simply because the transmission and its housing were better made later in its production. Chevy 4 speed manual transmission identification isn’t difficult if you know what to look for in the part. Luckily, the makes are different enough to give you at least a starting point. Though the serial number convention is sometimes confusing, there is a method in the madness that makes knowing which one you have an easier task. Looking at the shape, materials, and structure of the main case, extension housing, and cover are excellent places to start in your search for a positive ID. The other information will help you get to its production date to begin the quest for its story. The 4,500kg Since 1951 all heavy-duty trucks received 105 hp engin e, 4 - speed manual transmission a n d many of them used 2-speed rear axles.All engines are work together with a n e w manual transmission Z F, which can be six-or ni n e - speed.All 4x2 models are equipped with a 6 - speed manual g e ar box, and later, as an option, was offered an automat ic 5 - speed transmission.Da t a transmission speed d e pe nds on number of users and the distance to a base station: the more users are currently being served in the network and the further away the subscriber is from a base station, the lower will be the da t a transmission speed. suret.bakcell.com.

There are several reasons why this trend toward increased automation in the power train is to be expected in Europe. The automobile is becoming more and more just a means to an end - it is used to get from Point A to Point B comfortably and little operating effort possible. Stringent exhaust and noise regulations require that vehicles be run at the optimum operating point - for instance during the warm-up phase. Without automatic gear selection, driver action could very well negate pollution control features. Modern automatic transmission designs can compete with manual transmissions in fuel consumption and driving performance. The added cost is in the price range of a good car radio. The advantages of more relaxed driving and the world-wide statistics indicating fewer accidents with automatic transmissions should not be underrated. This presentation will focus on several options for automating the power train, starting with the manual shift transmission equipped with an automated clutch and concluding with a look at continuously variable transmissions. For purposes of comparison, these examples are all based on a vehicle with a 3 L engine because either production or prototype models of all the various automatic systems exist for this vehicle class. Weight: 48 kg Length: 470 mm Figure 1: 5-speed manual transmission (MT) The transmission is very compact and weighs only 48 kg, including the dual mass flywheel and the shift linkage. Losses that are incurred as the result of electronic clutch management and slip strategies will be explained later when fuel consumption is compared. 140 These discussions will also account for the efficiency of the electrical drive and the battery. The overall space required (including the clutch actuation system) is considerably less than for the automatic transmissions discussed later. Only the actuator - with the electonics incorporated - requires space in addition to the normally very compact manual transmission.

The transmission has a total drive ratio range of 4.82. This value is typical for the Power-to-weight ratio of the vehicle class treated in this study. It is not necessary to increase the transmission ratio for 1st gear (underdrive) because of the need to avoid exceeding the tire adhesion limit, and the ratio in 5th gear (overdrive) must not be too low because of acceptance problems with respect to acceleration capability in top gear. Even most 6-gear manual transmissions have drive ratio ranges of between 4 and 5. Additional costs for automated clutch systems, including the flywheel and the gear-shift mechanism, currently lie in the range of 25 to 30% of base transmission costs. The acceleration curve is a good indication of comfort. High acceleration peaks with resonant decay phases decrease comfort with non-automated clutches. With automated clutch management, even inexperienced drivers shifting gears in the partial load range can achieve the same shift quality as with a modern multi-ratio automatic transmission. This solution is already in production for commercial vehicles, which often have more than 10 gears. Because conventional automatic transmissions with planetary gears would be very expensive and complex to build, designers have equipped the shift linkage in these systems with either semi- or fully automatic servo system operation. The additional expense of these systems, even for transmissions with up to 16 gears, is within an acceptable range when compared to what it would cost for a conventional fully automatic transmission. Shifting gears is, however, not fully automatic; the driver decides based on his own judgement or a shift indicator whether to up or downshift. The driver pushes a shift level in the desired direction to shift up or down; it isn't necessary to select the appropriate gear slot.